Anything that has Mass and takes up space is referred to as matter. hydrogen and oxygen, sugar and sand, air and water, etc. Small, minuscule particles make up matter. Due to the space between them, matter particles are attracted to one another.
States of Matter
- Matter can be classified as solid, liquid or gas on the basis of inter-particle forces and the arrangement of particles.
- These three forms of matter are inter-convertible by increasing or decreasing pressure and temperature. For example, ice can be converted from solid to a liquid by increasing the temperature.
For more information on Matter Around Us, watch the below video
|Shape & volume||Fixed shape & volume||No fixed shape, but has volume||Neither definite shape nor volume|
|Arrangement of molecules||Regular & closely arranged||Random & little sparsely arranged||Random & more sparsely arranged|
|Fluidity||Cannot flow||Flows from higher to lower level||Flows in all directions|
|Movement||Negligible||Depends on interparticle attraction||Free, constant & random|
|Interparticle space||Very less||More…||Large|
|Rate of diffusion||Negligible||It depends on interparticle attraction.|
Atomic View of the Three States of Matter
Physical Nature of Matter
- A physical property is an aspect of matter that can be observed or measured without changing its nature or composition.
- It is independent of the amount of matter present.
- Physical properties include appearance, colour, odour, density, texture, melting point, boiling point, solubility, etc.
Characteristics of Particles of Matter
Matter is anything that has Mass and occupies space.
- Everything that we can touch, see, hear, taste and also smell is matter.
- It is made up of really tiny particles which cannot be seen through the eye.
- Particles of matter have spaces between them
- This characteristic is one of the concepts behind the solubility of a substance in other substances. For example, on dissolving sugar in water, there is no rise in the water level because the particles of sugar get into the interparticle spaces between the water particles.
2. Particles of matter are always in motion
- Particles of matter show continuous random movements due to the kinetic energy they possess.
A rise in temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles, making them move more vigorously.
- Particles of matter attract each other
- In every substance, there is an interparticle force of attraction acting between the particles. To break a substance, we need to overcome this force. The strength of the force differs from one substance to another.
When the particles of matter intermix on their own with each other, the phenomenon is called diffusion. For example, spreading of ink in water.
- During diffusion, the particles occupy the interparticle spaces.
- he rate of diffusion increases with an increase in temperature due to increase in the kinetic energy of the particles.
Can Matter Change Its State?
Effect of Change of Temperature on the State of Matter
On increasing the temperature, the kinetic energy of the particles of the matter increases, and they begin to vibrate with higher energy. Therefore, the interparticle force of attraction between the particles reduces, and particles get detached from their position and begin to move freely.
- As a result, the state of matter begins to change.
- Solids undergo a phase change to form liquids.
- Similarly, liquids also undergo a phase change to form gases.
The melting point of a solid is defined as the temperature at which solid melts to become liquid at the atmospheric pressure.
- At the melting point, these two phases, i.e., solid and liquid, are in equilibrium, i.e., at this point, both solid state and liquid state exist simultaneously.
When two Atoms collide to create a heavier Atom, such as when two hydrogen Atoms combine to create one helium Atom, this process is known as fusion. This process generates enormous amounts of energy, many times more than fission, and powers the sun. Furthermore, it doesn’t generate radioactive fission products.
The melting point at which ice, a solid, turns to water, a liquid, is 32°F (0°C).
The boiling point of a liquid is defined as the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
The boiling point for any material is the temperature point at which the material transforms into the gas phase in the liquid phase. This happens at 100 degrees centigrade for water. The Celsius scale was in fact created on the basis of the ice/water melting point and the liquid water/vapor boiling point.
Latent Heat of Fusion
It is the amount of heat energy that is required to change 1 kg of a solid into liquid at atmospheric pressure at its melting point.
Latent Heat of Vaporisation
It is the amount of heat energy that is required to change 1 kg of a liquid into gas at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point.
The transition of a substance directly from its solid phase to gaseous phase without changing into the liquid phase (or vice versa) is called sublimation.
Effect of Change in Pressure on the State of Matter
By applying pressure, the interparticle spaces between particles of matter decrease. Thus, by applying pressure and reducing temperature, we can convert a solid to liquid and a liquid to gas.
Flowchart for Inter-Conversion of the Three States of Matter
During evaporation, the particles of a liquid absorb energy from the surroundings to overcome the inter-particle forces of attraction and undergo phase change. The absorption of heat from the surrounding makes the surroundings cool.
For example, sweating cools down our body.